Category Archives: PAINTINGS, PRINTS, DRAWINGS

Gustave CAILLEBOTTE “rue de Paris, temps de pluie”


In 1994, a century after the death of the painter Gustave Caillebotte was entitled to his first retrospective. The exhibition subtitled “Urban Impressionist” left Paris to Chicago and Los Angeles, and made known to the public a French painter largely ignored so far in Europe and America by presenting more than 100 portraits, interiors, still lifes, landscape – particularly impressive – large urban landscapes.
Gustave Caillebotte (1848-1894) was best known art historians because of the friendship that bound the impressionists which he had also the patron. He helped financially painters who lived in poverty by buying their paintings. We had forgotten that he was a painter himself and even many paintings exhibited with the Impressionists. He never sold his work because he did not need to.
Even after his untimely death, his paintings remained in possession of his family. It was not until the end of the 50′s for the family decided to sell some paintings by Caillebotte.

rue de Paris, temps de pluie, Gustave Caillebotte, 1877.

The painting on this page (rue de Paris), measure 212cm on 276cm, so fairly large size.
This painting represents a crossroads by a Parisian afternoon winter avenues are wide, uniform facades, the view. This is the Paris we know but when Caillebotte painted it it was brand new and modern for the time.
Gustave Caillebotte was born into a prosperous family of the big bourgeoisie, the class could also belong to those shown in this table. His father was enriched by delivering beds to the French army, leaving his wife and son four reports several buildings and a villa. A 26 years after the death of his father, Caillebotte had a considerable fortune.

Gustave Caillebotte, 1868.

After studying law, he entered the studio of the academic painter Léon Bonnat, but mythological and historical themes discussed here do not meet and he joined a group of artists such as Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, Camille Pissaro and Alfred Sisley, who wanted to paint nature in daylight and treat topics.
They can not exhibit their work in formal living room, and they formed a “Société Anonyme Cooperative painters sculptors and engravers.” The critical time was indignant. After seeing “Impression Sunrise” by Monet, was called the young painters of impressionism, after the famous words of a journalist: “I thought too, since I’m impressed, there should be the impression in there … “

Impression soleil levant, Claude Monet, 1874.

Their first exhibition of 1874, which was not involved Caillebotte, scandal. He presented several paintings in the second exhibition of 1876, and in 1877, the third, he exhibited including “Paris Street, Rainy Time”. The critic Georges River is a researcher notes that bold on which hopes up based. Three years later the novelist Joris-Karl Huysmanns said: “This one is a great painter, a painter whose paintings take some later their place alongside the best.”
Time would give reason to Huysmanns but Caillebotte, ‘was nevertheless seen for nearly a century as manager and philanthropist, who rented rooms to Impressionists, brought executives, was advertising and financed.
In 1878, he gave 750 francs to Pissaro, he paid the rent and move Monet and bought 18 works, he admired his painter friends who had denied the tradition – perhaps he too dreamed to detach from the middle-class which it was derived.
His younger brother died in 1876 and Gustave Caillebotte thought the time had come for him to make a will. It is entered in the history of art as it procured the Impressionists late but official recognition of artworks to the French State on the condition that exposes it appropriately, “or in a attic, i in a museum of province “, and only if the public accepted this painting. According Caillebotte, it could take “20 years or longer.”
He was not mistaken: it was not until 1897, three years after his death and after violent discussions, the French government decided to accept the bequest. For the first time, 40 Impressionist paintings were presented in a national institute, the Luxembourg museum in Paris.
The donor was so modest that he did not want to impose his works to the French state next to the painters he admired, so Renoir decided to add to this exhibition one Caillebotte painting “les raboteurs de parquet”.

Les raboteurs de parquet, Gustave Caillebotte.

The table title mentions “a Paris street,” but we see more and we can easily identify: opens before us the rue de Turin, left Moscow street running down the center and at the bottom, the Calpeyron street. The crossing will call today instead of Dublin and close to the Gare St Lazare.
These rows of street had been created during the Youth Caillebotte, within the limits of the old city on a hill where was born a residential area populated by wealthy bourgeois.
The city center was not far redesigned too, with the Opera House and the wide boulevards lined with cafes and upscale luxurious department stores.

Haussmann.

Baron Haussmann, (1809-1891)

Napoléon III, (1808-1873)

All this was the work of Baron Haussmann, prefect of the Seine from 1853 to 1869. Napoleon III was responsible for destroyed the medieval center with its narrow streets and constructions wet after two outbreaks of cholera had caused thousands of deaths. No government dared to tackle this problem so far, but the Emperor was in favor of progress, it would improve the living conditions of the population and Hausmann gave the order to “take the old Paris” his “army” of officials. Baron was not satisfied with the old Paris, he also conquered new territory west of the city and turned into a residential area.

(purple line: work performed under Haussmann during the Second Empire)

Credit played a key role in the financing of this work, the authoritarian prefect gave “carte blanche” for all construction projects, whether public or private administration haussmann sole jurisdiction: from 1850, reform law authorizes to conduct massive expropriations – on behalf of the public unit, even without due process. Were demolished, they built, there was speculation, land prices climbed. “The wheels of expropriation” worked, as well as Emile Zola says, “as a powerful machine that, for fifteen years, has upset Paris, blowing fortune and ruin …”
Caillebotte’s father is enriched at that time: in 1866, he bought “the city of Paris, represented by Baron Haussmann”, a field he paid 148,780 francs, with the obligation to build. When he died a millionaire, his fortune was mainly composed of tenements in the new districts and distinguished.
Private individuals built, but under the influence of authorities and according to uniform building regulations. Thus was born what we see on the Caillebotte painting: wide straight roads connecting one place to another or building particularly important – station or Opera, Bourse – to another and offering a spectacular view . Haussmann appreciated the clear perspective and symmetry, he liked to see the streets to join the star-places, as well as Caillebotte painted.
The houses were not desired, but reports monumental buildings sheltering luxury apartment showing virtually identical facades carved stone.

Le Panthéon, Paris 1860, and today.

L’élargissement de la rue Réaumur. Parallèle aux Grands Boulevards, cette artère est aujourd’hui l’un des grands axes de circulation parisiens entre l’Opéra et la rue du Temple. Avant d’être élargie sous le règne du baron, elle traversait l’un des endroits les plus sinistres de la capitale, la fameuse cour des Miracles (à gauche).

The widening of the Rue Reaumur. Parallel to the Grands Boulevards, the artery is today one of the major roads of Paris between the Opera and the Rue du Temple. Before being extended under the reign of baron, she crossed one of the darkest places of the capital, the famous Court of Miracles (left). (Charles Marville / Publishing Patron and Gilles Leimdorfer for Le Figaro Magazine).

Each district had its gutter height data, it was most often houses six floors with balcony railings on the second and fifth floor, which should extend the entire length of the facade. Today, many places have their thread and aesthetic uniformity and harmony Baron Haussmann. He reorganized the urban landscape according to his tastes and those of bourgeois inhabitants of the capital, and Caillebotte painted that was modern at the time.
Caillebotte’s family, it is said that the painter had prepared preliminary drawings to his paintings, sitting in a bus – at the time these cars were still public horse-drawn – especially glass, so sheltered from the cold and rain.
But because “even in nature must dial” like so well Degas, Caillebotte chooses its viewing angle so that a table was born almost geometrical construction. A gas burner in cast iron lying by shadows on the wet pavement, stands at the center of the painting.
Standard accessory, manufactured industrially, the lamp rythmed streets Haussmann. Caillebotte also used to structure his painting, divide the vertical plane.
On the horizontal plane is organized by the street which crosses the stage and a virtual line that connects almost all the heads of the characters. At right, the man with the umbrella cut in two by the edge of the painting (rue de Paris, temps de pluie), gives the impression that we are faced with a new scene taken from life, framing, chosen at random, and not designed to paint all the details .

Gustave Caillebotte - Pont de l'Europe

Pont de l’Europe, Gustave Caillebotte

At the exhibition of 1877, Caillebotte also showed off “Paris Street rainy weather the” large canvas “Pont de l’Europe”. It shows bourgeois and workers walk on a wide bridge over the rails of the Gare St Lazare by a warm and clear spring morning or summer.
On this occasion, the other impressionists as expounded variants views of the capital, paying tribute to the city of loafers, idlers and people dancing merrily in cabarets.
This does not really fit artistic tastes. During the War of 1870, France had been occupied by the Germans, then the revolutionary commune took power, set fire to buildings and was severely repressed during the “bloody week”. In 1877, the reparations were paid to Germany, the economy flourished and the Republican government was preparing to celebrate the reconstruction with the Universal Exhibition of 1878. In a series of articles, Renoir asked artists to lend their support to democratization and to help give color to the city. Caillebotte painting of a third, presented the exhibition of 1877, shows that building painters paint in color gray facades of the street. In “Paris street” recognizes one of them with its scaffolding in the background.
Nevertheless, the painting does not show the Paris joyful, sociable, who wants to forget the bad memories, on the contrary: most of the characters portrayed seem lonely, they do not wander the empty streets, they hurry: their umbrellas don’t protect them only from the rain that falls but apparently there also other bystanders. In addition to contemplating the pavement dominate almost a quarter of the surface of the canvas, many spectators would think would think unwittingly about the Commune of 1871, paving stones thrown up barricades.

commune_1871-001.jpg

The Commune of Paris 1871.

The rioters had fought for days on “place de Clichy”, near the intersection represented by Caillebotte, Victor Hugo did not he wrote that the pavement is the symbol of the people?

Text from the book “Les dessous des chefs-d’oeuvres” Tome II – De Rembrandt à Riviera -
written by  Rose – Marie & Rainer Hagen
Taschen edition

Google translation

 

GO TO TOP OF PAGE

Edouard VUILLARD

Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940) is undoubtedly one of the most important painters of the late nineteenth century France. His work engaged art of the 1900s to new ways, which today still impresses with its quality and complexity.
Cuiseaux born in Saône-et-Loire November 11, 1868, he grew up in a modest family in Paris.
He joined in March 1886 at the Académie Julian. In June 1887 he was admitted to the Academy of Fine Arts and follows the teachings of Jean-Léon Gérôme.

Vuillard au col blanc

<a
Vuillard au col blanc Edouard VUILLARD 1901

He developed his taste for realistic still lifes and loves painting interior scenes. His work is characterized by a subtle and nuanced research ranges colored equilibrium between light and dark, lines worked arabesque decorative motifs inspired by Japanese prints.

Les Marronniers, 1894-1895 La Lectrice, 1896

This is a great admirer of classics like Vermeer, Watteau and Chardin, but it ‘s also very interested in the German artists of the seventeenth century.
In 1889, he joined a small group of artists from the Académie Julian, Maurice Denis and Pierre Bonnard who perform works marked symbolism and spirituality, which call themselves the “Brotherhood of Nabis” (Nabis meaning “prophets “in Hebrew), while claiming the work of Paul Gauguin.

Scène d’Intérieur, Paris, Edouard Vuillard.

 

Scène d’Intérieur, Paris 1899, Edouard Vuillard.

 It is for them to release all academic conventions and in particular the reproduction of nature or of the observed scene. The important thing is the proper reality of the painting itself, more than the reproduction of reality. They are disappointed by the limitations of Impressionism which simply reproduce landscapes, and ultimately be a loss for them as intellectual imagination, the feeling must be the key drivers of emotion. We need to bring art into life.

Intérieur, Edouard Vuillard.

In 1899, Vuillard makes some lithographs wit the series “Landscapes and Interiors”, as well as studies in pastels and watercolors that show great virtuosity in new technologies. This is a period where he also as decorative panels for interior Parisian mansions, posters and boxes of decorations “avant-garde” theater, and photographs of his close friends.

 

The Bernheim-Jeune Brothers, Edouard Vuillard 1908.

NABIS period is the most fruitful innovations in his work, which is a decorative very marked. The palette of the artist’s favorite however remains the same despite the adoption of technology Gauguin (solids without shades, colors violence, by partitioning concealer brush like a window) and adherence to the theories of Maurice Denis.


 

Self portrait, Edouard Vuillard.

http://www.artunframed.com/images/vuillard/1303.jpg

 

Tuileries, Edouard Vuillard

Vuillard interpreter Japanese prints in a way that recalls some japanese paintings by Bonnard, more rarely, it synthesizes the extreme: In bed (1891, Paris, Musée d’Orsay). The octagonal Selfportrait, the Reader is already in 1891-92 beasts by their bright colors, but remain without day in his work. In 1892, the first set decorative nabi is that the artist performs for the hotel Desmarais, cousins Natanson. In 1893, Vuillard performs tables with subject or portraits of bourgeois interiors peopled with integrated walls so that they almost merge with them and look out: Workshop (1893, Northampton, Mass.., Smith College Museum of Art), Interior (1887, Zurich, Kunsthaus). After a series of public gardens, painted in 1894 for Alexandre Natanson (Paris,

Musée d’Orsay Museum Houston, Texas Cleveland Museum, Brussels, Mr R. A. B.), it executes another set, the figures in interiors (1896, decorative panels for Dr. vera, Paris, Petit Palais), and portraits of Natanson (1897-1898).

After 1900, he turned more towards portraits receiving numerous orders of the Parisian bourgeoisie. His compositions are becoming increasingly large and monumental they acquire depth and volume that had not earlier works. They are intended for large country houses (those of Bernheim-Jeune in Bois-Lurette [1913] or Hessel).

 

Contesse Jean de Poulignac, Edouard Vuillard.

It neglects provided by the interior scenes he particularly likes, where he painted the privacy of rooms furnished responsible for prolonged moments of everyday life.
The description of the interior does not prevent the depth and sensitivity of portraits: the Natanson, the Bernheim-Jeune, the Hessel, Dr. Viau, Mrs. Bénard, the Comtesse de Noailles, the Nabis (Paris, Petit Palais), Ms. Vasquez Dr. Widmer, Jeanne Lanvin (1928) and his daughter the Countess de Polignac (1929), Countess of Blignac, among many others, have posed for the artist.
The nudes are rare in these apartments and plush furniture cluttered 1900 Vuillard has however done some early century (Woman styling, interior).

Edouard Vuillard <a href=

Sofa of nude women  Edouard Vuillard.

http://impressionistsgallery.co.uk/artists/Artists/tuv/Vuillard/pictures/Place%20Saint-Augustin,%201912-1913.jpg

 

Place Saint-Augustin, 1912-1913. Edouard Vuillard.

They have neither the freedom nor splendor of inspiration for those of Bonnard, yet these bare mention them by their intimacy, their relationship with the objects around them. Despite some successes (Landscape with Pond-la-Ville, 1899 at the Maison de Mallarmé Valvins, 1895, Paris, Musée d’Orsay), Vuillard also feels less comfortable outdoors. Embarrassed by the landscape, it is more inspired by the streets and gardens of Paris: Paris Landscape (c. 1905), Public Gardens (1894, Paris, Musée d’Orsay), Place Ventimiglia (1907), he mixes memories of Bazille and Monet, Puvis de Chavannes and the theme of the streets of Paris views height treated by Bonnard (1891-1892).

 

Place Vintimille, Paris. Edouard Vuillard

After 1930, during his vacation in the castle of Clayes property of his friends Hessel, it runs still lifes, flower vases simple, often placed in front of a window, all works of relaxation and harmony where the talent colorist there appears even at its best.

http://www.aloj.us.es/galba/monograficos/lofotografico/POSTIMPRESIONISTAS/FOTOGRAFIAS/Vuillard/Salomon_Vuillard1923.jpg 

Photography by Salomon, Edouard Vuillard, 1935.

Barbizon School.

Finally there was the French painters to explore their own country. Until that time, we knew the historic landscape especially in the tradition of Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain, tradition at the time of David the painter kept Valenciennes (1750-1819) and, after him, Bidault (1758 -1846), Michallon (1796-1822), Jean-Victor Bertin (1775-1842), Aligny (1798-1871). A one degree below was placed on pastoral or rustic style, its representatives, Watelet (1782-1866) in mind, meticulously painted landscapes of France, decorated with accessories such as cottages, mills, waterfalls.

These painters neat, alongside artists more original, but unrecognized, like Moreau the Elder (1740-1806), on the other hand the English-Constable (1776-1837) and Bonnington (1802-1828), inspired by France, were the forerunners of the great nineteenth-century French landscape.

Paul Huet (1804-1869)

Gustave Michel (1763-1843) and Paul Huet (1804-1869), formed by the study of Dutch and Flemish, played the role of scouts. Men of their time, they do not merely see the landscape, but they try to give it a soul. The merit of exploration of new territories they discovered will return to artists we have grouped under the name of the Barbizon School.

A group of French naturalist painters, their approach to painting, beginning in the 1830s, opened the door to Plein-Air Painting, Impressionism and Social Realism.  Barbizon School painters were based in the village of Barbizon, France on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleau.  Most were landscape painters who expressed fascination with changing seasons, changing times of day and the effects of light on the landscape.

Theodore ROUSSEAU ( 1812 / 1867 )

Barbizon artists had no agreed-upon style, but were revolutionary because of their commitment to portraying nature as a worthwhile subject in its own right rather than something that was so remote that it could only be expressed through romanticized and sublime images.

Pierre THUILIER (1799-1859)

In other words, nature was something that could be experienced personally and painted subjectively and not just romantically or philosophically.

BERMINGHAM, Peter

Barbizon School painters often included toiling peasants in their landscapes—persons who had little time or inclination towards ‘contemplation’ of nature.  This approach was also revolutionary in prevailing approaches to fine art, which showed preferences for genteel subjects such as aristocrats basking in the beauty of their surroundings.

Jean-Victor BERTIN (1775-1842)

Barbizon artists are considered the first “plein-air” painters, those who painted directly in the outdoors rather than completing their scenes in studios from sketches.  Chief among the original French Barbizon painters were Camille Corot, Francois Millet, Theodore Rousseau, and Charles Daubigny.

Jean-Baptiste-Camille COROT (1796-1875)

American painters much influenced by the Barbizon School were George Inness, Homer Martin, Alexander Wyant, William Morris Hunt aand Wyatt Eaton.  Eaton and Hunt lived near Millet at Barbizon.  Sources: “The Britannica Encyclopedia of American Art”;  Kimberley Reynolds, “Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms”

http://www.askart.com/AskART/interest/base_essay.aspx?id=79&glossary=1&pg=style

19th Century Wall Fountain in Pewter and Wood

19th Century Wall Fountain in Pewter and Wood

France
19th century
This rare interior wall fountain in pewter. The support is made in oak.

Its decorative motifs are Louis XVI style.

Price: $1,100 for the entire lot.

19th Century Wall Fountain in Pewter and Wood

Price
log in / registration

Condition*
very good

Measurements
height: 33 in. (84 cm)
depth: 7 in. (18 cm)
width/length: 13 in. (33 cm)

Specifications
Number of items: 1
Materials/Techniques: Tin & oak

Ref. : 111103916839

Terracotta Edging Paris Leaf design.

Terracotta Edging Paris Leaf design

FRANCE
XIXth century
Old garden edging or grass, called “tuile violon”, was usually made of terracotta or cast steel. It has an Art Nouveau pattern on top.

Terracotta Edging Paris Leaf design

Price
$150 for the entire lot.

Condition*
good

Measurements
height: 11.75 in. (30 cm)
depth: 1.5 in. (4 cm)
width/length: 6″

Specifications
Number of items: 1
Materials/Techniques: made of Terracotta

Ref. : 120229916880

Large glass bottle from France, called “Dame Jeanne”.

Large Glass Bottle France

early XX century
This is a large bottle usually glass, sometimes sandstone, protected by foam, straw or wicker woven into the very walls and used for storage and transport of food, beverage and other liquids (alcohols, acids, etc..). Spherical, flattened at the base, they are surmounted by a neck of about 50 mm in diameter. The capacity is from 5 to about 50 liters.
For oil, the demijohn is normally ceramic and has handles. For wine, it is glass and has no handle.

History:
Driven from his kingdom of Naples, Queen Jeanne took refuge in 1347 in his county of Provence through the Grasse road to Draguignan. Surprised by a violent storm, he pointed to the small castle of asylum gentleman glassmaker in the hamlet of “Saint Paul Gallina Grasse.”
After spending the night, the Queen wanted to see make the bottles. A little disturbed, the glassmaker blew the jaws of his cane, and realized a huge bottle that was admired by all its capacity of ten liters. He decided to start manufacturing and Jeanne-called queen, but the sovereign modestly suggested to give him the name demijohn. To protect the large bottle, the glass maker dressed the wicker.

Large Glass Bottle France

Price
$375 for the entire lot.

Condition*
very good

Measurements
height: 18.25 in. (46 cm)
diameter: 11.5 in. (29 cm)

Specifications
Number of items: 1
Materials/Techniques: blown glass
Creator: unknown

Ref. : 120229916864

Religious sculpture of the Virgin Mary

Religious sculpture of the Virgin Mary

France
19th century
Sculpture of the Virgin Mary in a purple coat. The time given to this subject a very special usury who making it unique.

It is usual to see Mary in blue dress but rarely in purple, the color of the queens. This piece of Art come from probably a french Catholic church.

Religious sculpture of the Virgin Mary

Price

Condition*
good

Measurements
contact dealer

Specifications
Number of items: 1
Materials/Techniques: Painted wood
Creator: unknown

Ref. : 111103916824

“Fleur de Lys” Fireplace back from France

“Fleur de Lys” Fireplace back from France

France
19th century
Fireplace back in cast iron, decorative style of the eighteenth century, royalist. Here are represented the crown of the King with his crown of laurel and lilies, symbols of French royalty. Fireplace backs are used to radiate heat back into the room very effectively.

The fireback is a cast iron plate affixed against the wall of the hearth of a fireplace to prevent heat from the fire does not get lost in the wall and back towards the room.
This plate has different names depending on the region: it is called hobs especially in the northeast and east of the area oïl (for example in Belgium, or Lorraine)
1. There is also the old word reluctantly (or plate reluctantly)
2. and also fire plate.
It usually has an embossed pattern and often the arms of the owner of the place and the date of its completion.

Fleur de Lys Fireplace back from France

Price

Condition*
A bit rusty from aging, but still good to use in the fireplace.

Measurements
height: 24.75 in. (63 cm)
width/length: 24.25 in. (62 cm)

Specifications
Number of items: 1
Materials/Techniques: Cast Iron
Creator: unknown

Ref. : 111103916836

French Farmhouse Painting By Eugene Damblans

French Farmhouse Painting By Eugene Damblans

FRANCE
Late 19th century
Eugene Damblanc(1865-1945) said Damblans, born 14 July 1865 in Montevideo and died January 21, 1945 in Bois-Colombes, is a French illustrator and watercolorist. Damblans born in Uruguay of French parents. He began working as an illustrator for newspapers in Argentina, then moved to France at the age of twenty-five years. He begins to illustrate the magazine La Caricature, then collaborated with the House of good press, including The Pilgrim. He also worked for the illustrated Christmas (weekly for Children), illustrated Earth, The Journal of travel, fun Youth, Le Petit Journal illustrated the Echo Christmas, and The Illustrated National Sun Sunday. He often draws large exotic scenes or current events taking place in distant countries. It also creates charming genre scenes childish.
It expands its collaboration with the house of good press by making illustrated stories, comics ancestors, such as The King of Paris or The Treasure of the Dévadassi. It illustrates the novels of the post-war published by Bayard Presse such as Pierre Lermite.
He died a few months after the liberation of Paris.

French Farmhouse Painting By Eugene Damblans

Price

Condition*
good

Measurements
height: 4″
width/length: 6″

Specifications
Number of items: 1
Materials/Techniques: oil painting

Ref. : 111215916860

Antique beveled Mirror Carved Brass 19th Century

Antique beveled Mirror Carved Brass 19th Century

FRANCE
19th century
Mirror made of metal glazing beads nineteenth century rejected. Mirror glazing beads embossed metal style XVIIth “Baroque” from Napoleon III period. Normal wear and tear of the complexion.

Antique beveled Mirror Carved Brass 19th Century

Price
$750 for the entire lot.

Condition*
good condition. the top mirror was cracked but still quite discreet

Measurements
height: 26″
second height: 16″
width/length: 16.25″

Specifications
Number of items: 1
Materials/Techniques: glazing beads brass and mirror

Ref. : 111103916831